Phosphorus is a non-metallic element belonging to the third period and the fifteenth group of the periodic table. The symbol for phosphorus is P, and it has an atomic number of 15. When it comes to its electronic configuration, phosphorus has five electrons in its outermost shell or valence shell. Therefore, it is said to have five valence electrons.
Valence electrons refer to the number of outer electrons present in an atom that can participate in chemical reactions. These are the electrons that mainly determine the chemical properties of an element. Phosphorus’ five valence electrons are in the third energy level, in the p sub-shell. The electron configuration of phosphorus is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3.
Phosphorus atoms tend to form three covalent bonds since they require three electrons to complete their outer shells. When it forms covalent bonds, phosphorus shares its valence electrons with other elements. The number of valence electrons determines how many bonds an element can form. Phosphorus can form multiple covalent bonds since it has multiple valence electrons available for bonding.
Phosphorus is an essential element for life processes, and it is present in various biochemical molecules like DNA, ATP, and phospholipids. Phosphorus is also used in fertilizers for agriculture and in the production of semiconductors and other electronic devices. Phosphorus is also used as a flame retardant to reduce the potential for fire hazards.
Phosphorus exhibits different oxidation states, including -3, +3, and +5, depending on the type of compound it forms. When it reacts with other elements, it can gain, lose or share its valence electrons. For example, when it reacts with oxygen, it forms an oxide called P2O5, where phosphorus has +5 oxidation state. P2O5 is a strong desiccant, meaning it can absorb water from the air, and it is used in the production of various chemicals like detergents, fertilizers, and food additives.
In conclusion, phosphorus has five valence electrons, and it belongs to the third period and the fifteenth group of the periodic table. Its valence electrons participate in various chemical reactions by forming covalent bonds with other elements. Phosphorus is an essential element for life processes, and it also finds applications in various industries. By understanding the properties of phosphorus, we can better understand its role in various chemical reactions and its impact on our daily lives.