Cadmium (Cd) is a chemical element with the atomic number 48 and symbol Cd. It belongs to the group of transition metals in the periodic table and is known for its low melting point, high ductility, and conductivity. Among all its properties, one of the most significant characteristics of Cadmium is the number of valence electrons it possesses.
Valence electrons are defined as the electrons present in the outermost shell of an atom that can participate in forming chemical bonds with other atoms. In Cadmium, the outermost shell or the valence shell contains two electrons. Therefore, the number of valence electrons in Cadmium is two.
The valency of an element depends on the number of valence electrons it has. The valency of cadmium is usually two, but it can also be four. These valencies make Cadmium a versatile element that can form several compounds with different oxidation states.
For instance, in the Cd(II) compound, Cadmium forms a chemical bond by sharing two valence electrons with another atom. In contrast, in the Cd(IV) compound, Cadmium shares all four valence electrons with the other atom. This ability to combine with other atoms to form different compounds makes Cadmium an essential element in various applications, including pigments, batteries, electroplating, and nuclear reactors.
In conclusion, Cadmium has two valence electrons in its outermost shell, making it belong to the family of elements that possess a valency of two. Understanding the valency of an element such as Cadmium is crucial in determining the chemical reactions it can undergo and the compounds it can form. Hence, it is critical to study the properties of elements and their valence electrons to understand their behavior in chemical reactions.